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The biosciences behind the Pro-Age Intégral skin care formula

Skin ageing is a natural biological process. It depends on internal factors, such as genetics and epigenetics, as well as external factors known as the exposome. The exposome is a concept that refers to all the non-genetic environmental exposures to which an individual is subjected throughout his or her life, from the prenatal period onwards. [1][2][3]

This concept was introduced in 2005 by Christopher Wild, director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, to add to the concept of the genome and provide a better understanding of the causes of chronic diseases.[2][3

The exposome is now considered to be a major determinant of health, on a par with the genome. [3

  [11]

The exposome encompasses different types of factors [3] : 

- Environmental factors: pollution, UV, climate change, etc. 

- Lifestyle factors: diet, sleep, stress, etc. 

- Socio-economic and psychosocial factors: living conditions, stress levels, etc. 

In the case of skin ageing, the most important and generally well-known factors are exposure to UV rays, pollution, lifestyle and sleep. 

 

To tackle the external factors that cause premature ageing of the skin, the solutions generally recommended have been to apply sun-filtering creams.  

However, it is important to check out the type of anti-UV agents present in cosmetic products, as certain products such as oxybenzone and octocrylene may have endocrine-disrupting properties and be carcinogenic. They can also cause allergies and skin irritations in some people. And, paradoxically, the use of certain sunscreens can also accelerate skin ageing by generating oxidative stress, which in turn leads to the premature appearance of wrinkles and pigmentation. 

For optimum external protection, we favour an approach aimed at optimal hydration and improving the skin's barrier and protective function. 

Another mechanism is the triggering of free radical production, notably due to overexposure to UV-A rays.  

Other factors in the exposome are likely to trigger the production of free radicals: pollution, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and diet. Cooked meats or charcuterie, fried foods, anything containing saturated fatty acids and alcohol are the most toxic triggers of free radicals. The accumulation of free radicals is closely associated with the body's general ageing process. 

 

The main effects of free radicals on skin ageing are as follows: 

  1. Damage to the skin's structural proteins [6].

Free radicals attack and destabilise two key proteins in the dermis, collagen and elastin, which give the skin its strength and elasticity. 

  1. Oxidative stress and cellular damage [6][7]

- Free radicals can cause irreversible damage to the skin's cellular structures and metabolic functions. 

- They can destructure cell membranes, destabilise certain proteins and alter the structure of DNA. 

The damage caused to the skin's structural proteins and cells leads to conditions such as premature ageing of the skin, characterised by the formation of wrinkles and hyperpigmentation. 

Finally, excessive production of free radicals can lead to chronic inflammation of the skin. This can aggravate conditions such as redness, eczema or psoriasis. 

 

Our solution for external protection and how our ingredients work: 

To formulate Pro-Age Intégral Care, we have chosen to combine hyaluronic acid and plant squalane. 

The main advantages of using hyaluronic acid and squalane together are as follows [4][5] : 

  1. Improved hydration

- Hyaluronic acid is a powerful humectant that draws water into the skin, providing deep hydration. 

- Squalane is an excellent emollient that helps seal in this moisture and prevent moisture loss. 

- The combination of these two ingredients creates a synergistic effect, where the hydration of hyaluronic acid is locked in by the occlusive properties of squalane. 

  1. Improved barrier function and skin protection

- Squalane helps reinforce the skin's natural lipid barrier, protecting it from external aggressors. 

- Hyaluronic acid supports the barrier function by providing deep hydration and preventing trans-epidermal water loss. 

- This synergistic effect reinforces the skin's resistance and its defence against premature ageing. 

These two ingredients are compatible with all skin types. 

Hyaluronic acid and squalane are both non-comedogenic, so they can be used on a wide range of skin types, including oily and acne-prone skin. 

To prevent oxidative stress by neutralising free radicals, we have combined these two ingredients with a powerful antioxidant rich in polyphenols: poplar bud extract. 

In short, the main antioxidant effects of polyphenols are as follows: 

  1. Neutralisation of free radicals [8]

- Polyphenols can capture and neutralise free radicals, preventing oxidative damage to cells. 

- They act as "free radical traps" thanks to their chemical structure rich in hydroxyl groups. 

  1. Protection against oxidative stress [8]

- By neutralising free radicals, polyphenols help to reduce oxidative stress at cellular level. 

- This helps prevent oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. 

  1. Stimulation of endogenous antioxidant defenses [9]

- Certain polyphenols can activate signaling pathways that stimulate the production of natural antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase. 

- This boosts the body's antioxidant defense capacity.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects [10]

- Certain types of polyphenols, particularly flavonoids, have anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce inflammation induced by oxidative stress. 

- This helps prevent cell damage associated with chronic inflammation. 

  1. Synergy with other antioxidants

- Polyphenols can act synergistically with other antioxidants such as vitamins C and E for enhanced antioxidant protection.  

Sources : 

[1] https://www.france-exposome.org/presentation-generale-de-france-exposome 

[2] https://www.ehesp.fr/recherche/domaines-et-champs-de-recherche/exposome/ 

[3] https://lejournal.cnrs.fr/articles/lexposome-lexposition-dune-vie 

[4] https://ca.news.yahoo.com/why-squalane-hyaluronic-acid-match-172106040.html 

[5] https://www.sophim.com/en/squalane-hyaluronic-acid/  

[6] https://books.openedition.org/ugaeditions/24480?lang=en 

[7] https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%C3%A9orie_radicalaire_du_vieillissement 

[8] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12747218/ 

[9]https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324436140_Identification_de_polyphenols_evaluation_de_leur_activite_antioxydante_et_etude_de_leurs_proprietes_biologiques 

[10] https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcvm.2021.750508/full 

[11] https://www.inrae.fr/en/news/exposome-footprint-lifetime-exposure